Category Archives: Emergency First Aid

First Aid Emergency: Heat Stroke

Heat stroke is a condition caused by exposure to excessive heat, whether natural or artificial. It is only considered heat stroke when the body temperature is at (or exceeds) 40°C (104°C). Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia. As a byproduct of metabolism, heat is usually dissipated by heat radiation through the skin or evaporation. However, in cases of very high temperatures, high humidity and physical exertion in the hot environment, the body may be unable to dissipate the heat leading to the rise of the body temperature. This rise in temperature may lead to damage in the internal organs and the brain.

Young children, particularly infants, and the elderly are more at risk for experiencing heat stroke. So are individuals with certain health problems that affect temperature regulation mechanisms, such as diabetes and kidney problems.

Heat stroke, the most serious among the heat-related illnesses, is also referred to as sunstroke. It progresses from heat cramps (mildest) and heat exhaustion (milder). Heat stroke is considered a medical emergency, thus it is absolutely necessary to call for emergency medical assistance as soon as an individual shows symptoms of heat stroke. Heat stroke may be fatal if not treated

Causes of Heat Stroke

There are several potential causes of heat stroke. Their common denominator is presence of hot temperatures. The following are the causes of heat stroke:

  • Exposure to high temperatures for a long period of time
  • Doing strenuous physical activity under the hot weather.
  • Dehydration , especially when it coexists with the previous two conditions
Doing vigorous physical activity under the hot weather for a long period of time may lead to heat stroke
Doing vigorous physical activity under the hot weather for a long period of time may lead to heat stroke

Signs and Symptoms of Heat Stroke

The two hallmark signs of heat stroke are the elevated body temperature at 40°C (104°C) or higher and the cessation of sweating, whereas in heat exhaustion there is still sweating the temperature is subnormal.

  • Body temperature of 40°C (104°C) or higher
  • Absence of sweating
  • Red, hot and dry skin
  • Pounding headache
  • Muscle cramps or weakness
  • Dyspnea
  • Nausea
  • Feeling faint
  • Seizures
  • Loss of consciousness

First Aid Management for Heat Stroke

It is necessary to give first aid to individuals suffering from heat stroke as it is considered a medical emergency. The primary goal of first aid management is to cool the victim. Learn how to properly administer first aid to heat stroke victims by enrolling in First Aid Courses. The following instructions do not substitute actual first aid training:

  • Immediately call for emergency medical assistance
  • If a hospital is nearby, transport the victim to the nearest one.
  • If no hospital is nearby, move the individual to a shaded area. If possible, move the individual to an air conditioned room.
  • Remove any clothing that was drenched in sweat. Remove also any jewelry.
  • Cool the victim by either (1) spraying the individual with cool or lukewarm water or (2) gently watering the individual using a garden hose.
  • Place ice packs wrapped in any piece of clothing to the neck, underarms, back and groin regions. These areas are rich in blood vessels and may aid in decreasing body temperature.
  • To help induce sweating and evaporation, fan the individual.
  • For individuals who are able to drink, assist them into drinking cool water, fruit juices or sports drinks. Avoid diuretics.
  • Monitor body temperature using a thermometer and do not stop giving first aid until temperature lowers to 38.3?C to 38.8?C.

Heat stroke occurs from doing strenuous physical activity under the hot weather or exposure to high temperatures for a long period of time. It is often accompanied by high body temperature and absence of sweating. Heat stroke is also called sunstroke.

Bacterial Infection: Tetanus

Tetanus, also called lockjaw, is a rare but serious infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The C. tetani bacterium is mostly found in the environment, present in soil contaminated with manure but can also be found in animal and human feces, animal saliva and even dust. The bacteria enter the body through a deep wound or any break in the skin, usually upon a cut or puncture. The bacteria will then multiply inside the body and begin to produce and release a toxin (poison). It is this toxin that results to the characteristic muscle spasms found in tetanus infections. This infection cannot be transmitted from one person to another.

Always seek medical attention if one is suspected of suffering from a tetanus infection, especially if a foreign object remains lodged in the skin. There is an increased risk of infection if the source of the wound is a dirty object, it can from an animal bite or it was a previous wound that had signs of infection. Know how to apply first aid on different kinds of wounds by enrolling in First Aid Courses.

There is an estimated one million new cases of tetanus each year worldwide. Within a five year time span, the World Health Organization reports an estimated 61,000 deaths from tetanus as of 2011. Fatality rate is highest among infants and the elderly.  Fortunately, tetanus can be prevented in individuals. There are now vaccines that can help fight this infection. It is recommended especially to infants and children, with booster shots every ten years.

Causes of Tetanus

Tetanus is usually caused by a deep cut our wound from a source infected by the bacteria. The following listed below are also sources of tetanus in individuals:

  • Insect bites
  • Dental infections
  • Surgical procedures

Signs and Symptoms of Tetanus

Initial signs and symptoms usually manifest eight days after infection, although the incubation period may be as short as three days or as long as three weeks. The first sign that a person may be suffering from tetanus is the mild spasms of the jaw, hence the name lockjaw. The other signs and symptoms of tetanus include:

  • Painful stiffness of the muscles of the body
  • Jaw cramps
  • Stiffness of the neck
  • Fever and chills
  • Headache
  • Abrupt and involuntary tightening of the muscles, often the stomach
  • Seizures, specifically characterized by jerking movements and staring
  • Increase in blood pressure
  • Tachycardia (increased heart rate)

Death may occur from a tetanus infection, particularly from abnormalities in the heart or severe trouble breathing.

First Aid Management for Tetanus

Administer first aid on all wounds to try and prevent any kind of infection from developing, especially serious ones, such as tetanus. The following can be done:

Apply direct pressure on a bleeding wound to try and prevent tetanus
Apply direct pressure on a bleeding wound to try and prevent tetanus
  • Control the bleeding by applying direct pressure on the wound.
  • When the wound has stopped bleeding, thoroughly wash the wound with running water and mild soap.
  • If a saline solution is available, apply this as well.
  • Apply a thin layer of antibiotic cream or ointment.
  • Cover the wound using a sterile dressing. Change this dressing at least once a day.
  • Do not cover the wound if it has not yet been cleaned to avoid trapping the bacteria in the wound.

Tetanus is an infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It causes muscles spasms, painful muscle spasms and seizures.

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

High blood pressure (BP), medically known as hypertension, is a medical condition characterized by having a resting sustained elevated blood pressure of systolic BP greater than or equal to 140mmHg, diastolic BP greater than or equal to 90mmHg or both. Individuals with hypertension usually do not develop signs or symptoms unless it is intense or long term. Risk factors for hypertension include age, obesity, high salt diet, alcohol, smoking, diabetes and having a family history of hypertension. This medical condition is dangerous as it can lead to further complications in the body, such as heart attack, heart disease, heart failure, kidney disease and strokes.

Causes of Hypertension

Hypertension is either classified as primary or secondary. If it has no known cause, it is identified as primary, which accounts for most of the cases. Secondary hypertension is due to an identified cause. There are several factors that can alter the blood pressure of the body:

  • Amount of salt and water in the body
  • Kidney, blood vessel and nervous system conditions
  • Levels of hormones in the body, such as renin, angiotensin and aldosterone, among others
  • Stressful situations

Secondary hypertension can be due to the following existing medical conditions:

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Adrenal gland disorders, such as primary aldosteronism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Pregnancy
  • Taking certain medications, such as, diet pills, birth control pills, and medicines for colds

Signs and Symptoms of Hypertension

The following are signs and symptoms that are commonly associated with hypertension:

A person suffering from a hypertension attack often has a severe headache
A person suffering from a hypertension attack often has a severe headache
  • Intense headache
  • Dizziness
  • Sweating
  • Nose bleed
  • Stiffness of the body
  • Feeling anxious
  • Sudden weakness

Classification of Hypertension

Blood pressure is defined as the measurement of pressure or force against the artery walls as the heart pumps through the body. The readings for blood pressure are given as two numbers. Systolic blood pressure refers to the top (high) number, whereas the diastolic blood pressure sis the bottom (low) number. Blood pressure classification for individuals 18 years old and above is as follows:

  • Normal: Systolic is 120mmHg or lower, Diastolic is 80mmHg or lower
  • Prehypertension: Systolic is between 120-139mmHg, Diastolic is between 80-89mmHg
  • Stage 1 hypertension: Systolic is between 140-159mmHg, Diastolic is between 90-99mmHg
  • Stage 2 hypertension: Systolic is 160mmHg or higher, Diastolic is 100mHg or higher

First Aid Management for Hypertension

The following first aid tips are recommended when a person experiences hypertension:

  • Tell the patient to take deep breaths and reassure them
  • If the patient is in a stressful situation, remove the person from the stress.
  • If the patient’s nose is bleeding, administer appropriate first aid.
  • Give drinks that are high in potassium to help balance the amount of sodium (salt) in the body to lower blood pressure levels.

How to Prevent Hypertension

There are several ways to prevent this chronic condition, which include:

  • Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet and minimize the amount of salt in the diet.
  • If one is overweight or obese, lose weight.
  • Drink plenty amounts of water.
  • Exercise for at least 150 minutes a week.
  • Do not smoke and limit alcohol intake.

Understanding hypertension can help when taking First Aid Courses as it is a great risk factor for many medical emergencies, such as strokes and heart attack. Hypertension is a condition is sustained elevated resting blood pressure of greater than or equal to 140mmHg/90mmHg.

Online Sources:

Burn First Aid: Classification of Burns according to Severity

Why is determining the severity of burn important?

Knowing the severity of a burn is very important, because this will be the basis for providing first aid services. Also by determining how severe the burn is, you can have an idea if the victim needs basic first aid or a more advanced emergency medical assistance. The main idea to remember when determining burn severity is how deep the burn has damaged the skin. The thickness of the burn is classified into several degrees, which we are going to discuss below.

Different types of burns according to degree

  1. First-degree burns – This is the least serious type of burn. Only the outer layer of the skin is burned and the damage is just superficial. This means that the inner layer of the skin is still intact, and the nerves still maintain its functions and sensation. Because this is considered as a minor case, it involves first aid burn treatment.
  2. Second-degree burns – The burned area includes the outer and inner layer of the skin. At this point, blisters usually develop, there is severe pain and swelling in the area, and the skin becomes more reddish and splotchy. As part of first aid, if the surface area of the burn is not larger than 3 inches, it can still be considered as a minor burn. But if the affected part involves the face, feet, hands, and buttocks, and is larger than 3 inches, it should be treated as a major burn, where emergency medical assistance is necessary.
  3. Third-degree burns – This is the most severe form of burn. It means that aside from the epidermis and dermis, the burn may have also damaged the nerves, muscles and even bones. This can cause serious tissue damage, nerve death, fluid loss and extreme heat.

Always remember that the higher the number, the more dangerous the burn.

Major burn should be given proper medical treatment: until help arrives, it is necessary to do the following to the victim:

Never remove the victim’s clothes.
Remove the victim from the area of danger.
Do not immerse major burns in extremely cold water or apply ice packs.

Check the victim for any sign of breathing before administering CPR
Check the victim for any sign of breathing before administering CPR

Administer CPR if victim does not have pulse and not breathing.




Elevate the part of the body that is burned higher than the heart level.

In cases like these, you can save someone’s life if you have necessary background about first and CPR. Enroll in a first aid and CPR course in certified institutions only. Check our locations listing for more information.

Related Video on Burns:

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“Determining the Severity of a Burn.” First Aid. Retrieved online on August 5, 2014 from

“Burn Classifications.”  UNM Hospitals. Retrieved online on August 5, 2014 from

First Aid for Drug Overdose

Whenever a person takes too much of a drug – whether it is a prescribed, bought over-the-counter, or taken for recreational purposes – he/she can suffer from drug overdose. Whenever these drugs are taken in excess without appropriate medical supervision, it can be fatal for the health of the victim unless given prompt care.

How does a drug overdose occur?

Overdose or poisoning can have a wide range of effects on the body, but this varies greatly from the type of drug ingested, how much is taken, and the purpose for taking it.  Apart from prescribed and over-the-counter medications that are taken without proper supervision, poisoning from drugs can happen to anyone. But they commonly occur on teenagers attending night parties and taking “recreational drugs” in hopes of staying “high” and active all night. The problem with this is that they do not know the contents and nature of the substance and its possible effects on the body. Sometimes, they even take more than one kind of drug, but this further complicates their health and could be fatal in the long run.

Treatment goals for drug overdose

As first aid providers, the only that you can do is to give as many information as possible to the emergency services once they arrive. So, the first step in providing first aid to a victim suffering from drug overdose is to call emergency hotline, check the patient’s breathing and vital signs, as well as to ask the patient some questions about the type of drugs taken. The main goal therefore is to avoid airway obstruction and maintain circulation and breathing while help arrives.

If the victim is conscious, do the following:

  • Place them in a comfortable position
  • Reassure, talk to, and calm the patient especially when they become agitated
  • Regularly monitor vital signs, particularly the pulse and breathing
  • Assess the surrounding and interview the patient to help you identify what kind of drug has been taken.

If the victim is unconscious:

  • Check breathing and open the airway. Make sure that there are no obstructions
  • Prepare to give rescue breathing and chest compressions if necessary
  • If the victim is breathing normally, though, simply place them in a recovery position as help arrives.

Putting someon in the recovery position


Important reminder: there are some drugs that could cause serious overheating or sudden rise in body temperature. Be sure to check the patient’s temperature and remove any clothing if necessary to avoid further overheating of the body.

Learning some practical skills about first aid can help save someone’s life during critical situations. Enroll in a first aid course to know more about the importance of first aid administration.


“Drug Abuse First Aid.” Medline Plus. Retrieved online on July 23, 2014 from

“First Aid For Poisons and Drug Overdoses.” Howstuffworks. Retrieved online on July 23, 2014 from

Flail Chest – How Does It Occur And What Are The First Aid Treatments For It?

How Does Flail Chest Happen?

Whenever the chest receives a severe trauma – such as from a heavy blow or serious accidents causing multiple rib fractures – it is likely to result in a condition known as flail chest. This is a life-threatening event that results from extreme rib cage fractures, detaching it from the rest of the chest cavity. Whenever the broken rib cages move independently from the rest of the chest wall, it results in paradoxical respiration or paradoxical breathing. When this happens, there is an associated pain or increased workload that occurs during breathing.  Flail chest is considered as a life threatening condition, because if left untreated, it could result to death. Time and immediate treatment is therefore crucial for flail chest victims. Individuals who have recognized and learned the value of first aid courses will know how to manage flail chest victims.

Flail Chest – What are the Signs and Symptoms?

Severe pain exhibited by a victim of flail chest.
Severe pain exhibited by a victim of flail chest.

The usual symptoms seen include chest pain, labored and difficult breathing. They will be gasping for air, because of the difficulties associated. Further assessment will show bluish discoloration of the mouth, skin in the affected chest area and nail bed. The flailed rib cages already moves in an opposite direction during the breathing process; for instance, when the diaphragm contracts during exhalation, the flailed part moves outward, and when the diaphragm expands during inspiration, the flailed part moves inward. The victim may also lose consciousness, resulting to shock in the process.

What Are The First Aid Techniques For Flail Chest?

First of all, we need to provide safety for the victim of the flail chest. If he/she is outdoors in a life-threatening environment, we need to move him/her in a safer place. Let us assume that you have already assessed the patient for signs and symptoms of flail chest; the next thing to do is to call the emergency response. Third, we need to stabilize the affected part. To do this, we need to place a pillow on the flailed segment of the chest to put pressure on it and prevent it from moving in an opposite direction whenever the victim breathes. Always remember that if the flail segment does not move oppositely, it could less likely cause damages to nearby organs, most especially the lungs and the heart.

Additional Tips

If there is no accessible emergency number in the area, rush the victim to the emergency department as soon as possible. If no pillow is available, anything that helps stabilize the flail segment could be used – thick clothing, blanket or jacket that is rolled up over the site of the injury.

Related Video on Flail Chest:

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“Flail Chest.”  Wikipedia. Retrieved online on June 18, 2013 from “The Management of Flail Chest.” (2007).Thoracic Surgical Clinic. Authors Pettiford, B., Luketich, J. & Landreneau, R.

Hypothermia First Aid Tips

Initial symptom of hypothermia is the drop of body temperature, resulting in coldness.
Initial symptom of hypothermia is the drop in body temperature, resulting in coldness.

Whenever an individual is exposed to wind with high humidity or chill factor, and to extremely cool places and environment for a prolonged period of time, the body’s thermoregulation may fail to keep the temperature within the normal range. In the process, more heat is being lost than what the body can generate – a condition known as hypothermia or a body temperature that is lower than 35C (95F). Inadequate or wet clothing, taking a dip into cold water, or even not wearing head covers during cold weather can increase the likelihood of developing hypothermia.

What are the signs and symptoms of hypothermia?

Signs and symptoms of hypothermia usually develop gradually, and because they often experience gradual loss of mental coordination and awareness, they are mostly unaware of the need for medical emergency.

  • Slow, abnormal breathing
  • Pale, cold skin
  • Gradual loss of mental coordination and awareness
  • Apathy, fatigue or lethargy
  • Short-term memory loss or confusion
  • Shivering accompanied by slurred speech
  • Cold skin
  • Lowered body temperature

Who are most at risk of hypothermia?

Babies, children, people who are thin and older adults are the population most at risk for hypothermia, especially during cold, rainy, or winter seasons. Other predisposing factors for hypothermia include cardiovascular diseases, hypothyroidism and malnutrition.

What to do to a person suffering from hypothermia?

As an important first aid management, it is always necessary to check the airway, breathing and circulation of the patient. Always see to it that the victim has airway and is breathing.

Move the victim to a safer location or indoors, especially when he/she is outside exposed to cold weather; a warm and dry place is very important.

Call the emergency hotline and check the patient’s symptoms – slurred speech, confusion, shivering extremities – if they are getting worse.

If the victim is wet, dry him/her and replace clothing with dry. However, if the victim is dry, leave the clothing on and wrap him/her with thick, warm blankets.

If the patient is conscious, allow him/her to take small sips of warm, non-alcoholic drinks. Never apply direct heat to the victim as it may cause scalding or burning.

If you are going to apply warm compress, start from the center of the body (preferable the chest, neck, head and groin areas). This helps prevent the cold blood from going back to the heart, which could result to sudden drop in body temperature.

As providers of first aid, it is necessary to know how to check an individual for signs and symptoms of hypothermia, as well as to render emergency care when necessary. Check out our site for more information about First Aid Courses.

Related Video On Hypothermia:

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“How To Recognize and Treat Hypothermia.” Retrieved online on June 19, 2014 from

“Hypothermia Treatment.” WebMD. Retrieved online on June 19, 2014 from

Survival Emergencies – What To Do In Case A Patient Suffers From Gunshot Wound

How severe is a Gunshot Wound?

Gunshot wound, also known as ballistic trauma, is a type of trauma received firing of munitions or arms. Ballistic trauma can be sustained from armed conflicts, recreational gun sports and criminal pursuits. Because of the severity of the damage done to internal organs, gunshot wound is considered as one of the most traumatic injuries that a person might suffer. It is usually difficult to treat the gunshot victim with first aid, so the best option to treat bullet wounds is to send the victim to a nearby hospital immediately. But because time (time to arrive at a hospital to ensure survivability) is the main enemy of a critically wounded gunshot victim, it is important to stabilize the condition of the patient while professional help arrives.

What are the Immediate Effects of Gunshot Wound?

The severity of tissue destruction is relative to the size of the hole the bullet creates and the velocity of the bullet itself. This means that the larger the bullet, the more severe the damage created. In most cases, however, the immediate effect of ballistic trauma is severe bleeding on the site of injury. This results to potential hypovolemic shock, which is characterized by severe loss of oxygen due to lack of blood supply going to the vital parts of the body. This explains why the immediate results of gunshot wound in critical organs are more severe than in the upper or lower limbs. The more vital organs have received immense amount of tissue destruction, the more severe the effect of gunshot wound will be.

Some of the Most Important First Aid for Gunshot Wound Victims

Because of the immediate effects gunshot wounds could have on the victim as medical help arrives, it is necessary to prevent further damage and bleeding in the process.

The first thing to do is to immediately remove the victim from the site of danger prior to administration of first aid.

After you have notified emergency professionals, administer basic first aid – assess the airway, breathing and circulation; keep the airway open if patient is unconscious but breathing; if breathing is hardly noticed, administer rescue breathing.

Control the bleeding by applying pressure to and sealing the wound site to prevent severe loss of blood.

Anticipate shock at all costs – hypovolemic shock normally occurs in gunshot wound victims. They will show signs of hypovolemic shock including changes in body temperature. If the patient feels cold, cover him/her up to warm the skin; if he/she feels warm, though, remove excessive clothing and place patient in well-ventilated location.

If you want to learn about the basic first aid procedures, check out the site for more information.

Related Video on Gunshot Wound:

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“How to Treat a Gunshot Wound.” Retrieved online on June 9, 2013 from

“How to Treat 4 types of Gunshot Wounds.” The Survival Doctor. Retrieved online on June 9, 2013 from

Emergency Cases – Heat Illnesses and Dehydration

In order to prevent dehydration, it is important that individuals have a good understanding of what dehydration is all about. When an individual suffers from dehydration, it means that there is not enough water or fluid inside the body. However, there are some instances when the person becomes dehydrated because of certain heat emergencies, including heat stroke. Heat-illnesses are always associated with dehydration, which means that in order to prevent heat stroke, we need to prevent dehydration as well.

Severity of dehydration ranges from mild, moderate to severe, depending on the total amount of fluid loss. But keep in mind that severe dehydration is a life-threatening condition that should be given appropriate medical intervention.

What are the common causes of dehydration?

In cases where excessive heat is the reason, dehydration can happen as a result of too much sweating, wearing of too much clothes and not drinking adequate amount of water.

On the other hand, dehydration can also happen as a result of excessive vomiting, too much urination, diarrhea and fever.

Recognizing the symptoms of dehydration

Mild to moderate dehydration are easily recognizable. These include excessive thirst, sticky or dry mouth, dark-yellow urine, cool and dry skin, minor muscle cramps, head ache, and decrease in urination.

Severe dehydration, meanwhile, can be determined by the following: rapid breathing, sunken eyes, lightheadedness or dizziness, shriveled and dry skin, and amber-colored (very dark) urine.

Recognizing early signs of heat illness

Once dehydration occurs, heat illnesses will likely follow. It is therefore important to recognize early signs of heat illness, so we can take appropriate measures thereafter. These include thirst, fatigue, profuse sweating, weakness, increase in body temperature, weak and rapid pulse, vomiting and loss of consciousness.

First aid for heat illness and dehydration

  • Place the person in a cool environment to prevent heat from further accumulating in the body.
  • Assist the person in lying down; elevate the feet at least 12 inches to ensure adequate circulation on the lower extremities and prevent muscle cramps from developing.
  • If the person is conscious, have him/her sip water or energy drinks to replace the lost fluids and electrolytes in the body.
  • Let the person suck on ice cubes, as this helps lower down body temperature faster.
  • Remove any excessive clothing from the person’s body as this produces more heat even if he/she is already in a room temperature environment.

Important note

  • If the person loses consciousness, suddenly changes level of alertness, suffers from seizures, or has fever that does not subside by the time you are applying the following first aid, you need to call for emergency medical assistance immediately.

Related Video On Heat Stroke Prevention

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Heat Emergencies. (2014). University of Maryland Center. Retrieved online on May 19, 2014 from

First Aid & Emergencies. (2013). Web MD. Retrieved online on May 19, 2014 from

Emergency First Aid Training for Offices: Healthcare Facility Inaccessibility

First Aid Training in the Workplace
All first aid training in the workplace includes CPR certification and training.

When it comes to determining the required number of employees who have undergone emergency first aid training, business owners or employers should take note of any nearby healthcare facilities such as hospitals and clinics. This is because offices and other workplace environment that are too far from these facilities should comply to more rigorous requirements than establishments that are less than 20 minutes away from one. Here are some of the regulations that offices that are inaccessible to healthcare facilities should follow when it comes to emergency first aid training.

Number of employees trained in first aid

The most followed regulation among all provinces and territories is that offices or other workplace environment that are far from healthcare facilities should have more number of employees who have received first aid training. This is the rule that is followed in Northwestern Territories and Nunavut in which offices and business establishments that are more than 20 minutes away from the nearest healthcare facility should have at least one trained employee for every nine employees. If there are more than 75 employees in the area, there should be one more trained employee for every increment of five employees.

Number of first aid kits

The types of first aid kits that businesses should have also depends on the distance between the establishment and the nearest healthcare facility as well as the number of employees. The general rule is that establishments that are farther away from healthcare facilities should have more advanced healthcare or first aid kits. In British Columbia for example, low risk business establishments that are less than 20 minutes away from a healthcare facility and have more than 100 employees should have a Level 2 First Aid Kit. Meanwhile, establishments that are more than 20 minutes away from a healthcare facility and has more than 76 employees should have a Level 3 First Aid Kit.


There are certain industries that are required by the government to have the same number of trained employees and first aid kits regardless of their distance from a healthcare facility such as the construction and forestry industry. These industries are more hazardous than others which is why they require a relatively high number of trained employees and first aid kits on the worksite. This rule is applied regardless of the province or territory where these businesses are built. Rigorous emergency first aid training is also mandatory for these industries in which employees will learn about more advanced first aid techniques and first aid kid paraphernalia which they can use whenever accidents occur.

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